Progress and Poverty

An inquiry into the cause of industrial depressions and of increase of want with increase of wealth... The Remedy

by Henry George
San Francisco, 1879

To those who, seeing the vice and misery that spring from the unequal distribution of wealth and privilege, feel the possibility of a higher social state and would strive for its attainment.

Table Of Contents

Preface to the Centenary Edition -- 1979

Introduction to the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Edition -- 1905

Preface to the Fourth Edition -- 1880


The Problem

Book I -- Wages and Capital

  1. The current doctrine of wages--its insufficiency

  2. The meaning of the terms

  3. Wages not drawn from capital, but produced by the labor

  4. The maintenance of laborers not drawn from capital

  5. The real functions of capital

Book II -- Population and Subsistence

  1. The Malthusian theory, its genesis and support

  2. Inferences from facts

  3. Inferences from analogy

  4. Disproof of the Malthusian theory

Book III -- The Laws of Distribution

  1. The inquiry narrowed to the laws of distribution -- necessary relation of these laws

  2. Rent and the law of rent

  3. Interest and the cause of interest

  4. Of spurious capital and profits often mistaken for interest

  5. The law of interest

  6. Wages and the law of wages

  7. Correlation and co-ordination of these laws

  8. The statics of the problem thus explained

Book IV -- Effect of Material Progress on the Distribution of Wealth

  1. The dynamics of the problem yet to seek

  2. Effect of increase of population upon the distribution of wealth

  3. Effect of improvement in the arts upon the distribution of wealth

  4. Effect of the expectation raised by material progress

Book V -- The Problem Solved

  1. The primary cause of recurring paroxysms of industrial depression

  2. The persistence of poverty amid advancing wealth

Book VI -- The Remedy

  1. Insufficiency of remedies currently advocated

  2. The true remedy

Book VII -- Justice of the Remedy

  1. Injustice of private property in land

  2. Enslavement of laborers the ultimate result of private property in land

  3. Claim of landowners to compensation

  4. Property in land historically considered

  5. Property in land in the United States

Book VIII -- Application of the Remedy

  1. Private property in land inconsistent with the best use of land

  2. How equal rights to the land may be asserted and secured

  3. The proposition tried by the canons of taxation

  4. Indorsements and objections

Book IX -- Effects of the Remedy

  1. Of the effect upon the production of wealth

  2. Of the effect upon distribution and thence on production

  3. Of the effect upon individuals and classes

  4. Of the changes that would be wrought in social organization and social life

Book X -- The Law of Human Progress

  1. The current theory of human progress -- its insufficiency

  2. Differences in civilization -- to what due

  3. The law of human progress

  4. How modern civilization may decline

  5. The central truth


The Problem of Individual Life